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Social Skills Training can help children and young adults connect with other.

Social Anxiety In Toddlers

Social Skills Training can help children and young adults connect with other.Toddlerhood is defined as the age range from 12 to 36 months. During this period, a child’s emotional and cognitive development grows by leaps and bounds, as do their social skills. This also coincides with the time when children are likely to go into a daycare environment or head off to preschool. As they engage more often with other children and adults, it may also be the stage when a toddler’s social fears begin to emerge.

Just as with adults, some children are comfortable with social interactions while others may not be. Each group of kids will have the social butterfly as well as the “shy” child who quietly observes and doesn’t interact as much. It is one thing to be shy, however, and another to be intensely fearful and anxious in a social setting. Because we know it can show up early in life, a toddler who shows such strong reactions in a social environment is often regarded as having social anxiety.

What causes social anxiety in toddlers?

We aren’t really sure what causes social anxiety in toddlers. Genetics likely plays a role, since it contributes to a child’s temperament and personality. We also know that some genetic traits can influence certain mental health conditions.

A toddler’s environment could also predispose them to social anxiety. For a young child who already has a higher genetic risk, living with trauma or a severe parenting style may be enough to initiate social anxiety.

Social anxiety may also be learned from a parent, according to a 2006 study by de Rosnay, et al. Their research focused on indirect expressions of a mother’s social anxiety on their infant. The results showed that, “compared to their responses following their mothers interacting normally with a stranger, following a socially anxious mother-stranger interaction, infants were significantly more fearful and avoidant with the stranger. Infant-stranger avoidance was further modified by infant temperament; high fear infants were more avoidant in the socially anxious condition than low-fear infants.”

Is Social Anxiety a form of autism?

Studies have shown that social anxiety is not a form of autism, although the two have overlapping indicators, such as separation anxiety and avoiding eye contact. In fact, not only are they two distinct disorders, but the symptoms and diagnostic criteria for each are vastly different.

As the name implies, social anxiety is driven by anxiety. A child who has social anxiety will function within the parameters of their level of unease. For instance, they may simply keep to themselves, avoid other children, or might talk too quietly. Some kids may not talk at all.

On the other hand, a child with autism spectrum disorder doesn’t behave based on their anxiety level. Instead, this child has trouble understanding social cues and the nuances of communication. They might speak too loudly, may push their way into a group of children, or might misinterpret facial expressions or gestures.

Does my kid have social anxiety?

Children who have social anxiety may be branded as difficult kids because their anxiety can show up in forms other than just in social interactions.

Toddlers with social anxiety often show certain signs, such as:

  • Being a picky eater
  • Easily startled by noises
  • Not adapting well to new situations
  • May have a higher sensitivity to tactile sensations
  • Acting shy around new people and fearing strangers
  • Disliking being separated from their parents (separation anxiety) and distraction doesn’t calm them
  • Having strong emotional reactions and difficulty self-soothing
  • Might have sleep issues
  • Seems afraid to interact with peers, both individually or in a group setting
  • Often has other phobias or fears

Therapists who specialize in treating children’s mental health concerns can do an assessment, however a definitive diagnosis in a toddler with social anxiety may not be feasible due to their young age. The results should highlight challenging areas, though. It may also reveal the basis of the child’s social anxiety, which allows for early intervention.

How to help a child with social anxiety

At home, parents can demonstrate healthy social interactions when their child is with them, so the toddler learns not to be so fearful.

They can also rehearse a new situation with their child before it comes up. For example, a toddler who will be going to daycare for the first time might role-play some of the things they’ll do while they are there. Practicing certain aspects of the day or even dropping by the daycare a couple of times before officially attending can ease fears because the daycare will already be familiar. It would also be helpful to let the teachers or caregivers know about your child’s fears, so they can help build confidence.

Other supportive methods include:

  • Encouraging your toddler, but not forcing them into social interactions.
  • Using praise when the child successfully navigates a scary situation.
  • Not criticizing them for their fears.
  • Being calm and showing the toddler that you are confident.
  • Not being overprotective, which only reinforces the idea that the toddler has something to be afraid of.
  • Reading books or watching videos that show confident children.

Get Help for Social Anxiety in Toddlers

Our warm and welcoming Children’s Center offers a wide range of clinical, therapeutic, educational and supportive services specifically for children ages two through twenty two. Additionally, our facility is the South Florida regional clinic for the National Social Anxiety Center (NSAC).

For more information about how our child psychologist can help your child with their social anxiety or other mental health needs, contact the Children’s Center for Psychiatry Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

References

  1. de Rosnay, M., Cooper, P. J., Tsigaras, N., & Murray, L., (2006). Transmission of social anxiety from mother to infant: An experimental study using a social referencing paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8(44), 1165-1175. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.09.003
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Boy with heart shaped paper

Autism Spectrum Disorder: ASD And Anxiety In Children

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comes with a variety of challenges. For many children, it can mean issues with compulsiveness and repetitive behaviors, learning and social deficits, and a resistance to change. ASD also can manifest with various emotional difficulties – although not specifically linked, we know that ASD and anxiety frequently appear together in children.

Kids with ASD and anxiety can have physical symptoms (example: racing heart or a stomach ache) or their anxiety may also show up in the form of rituals that can help calm them (for instance: shredding paper). Because many autistic children are either non-verbal or have trouble communicating, an outward display of anxiety may be their only way of telling you that they are distressed.

Autism And Anxiety Comorbidity

“40% of young people with ASD have clinically elevated levels of anxiety or at least one anxiety disorder, including obsessive compulsive disorder”, according to an article by Dr. Elisabetta Burchi and Dr. Eric Hollander of the Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Program at Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

They stress the importance of anxiety treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. “While untreated comorbid anxiety has been associated with the development of depression, aggression, and self-injury in ASD, an early recognition and treatment may convey better prognosis for these patients“.

Some studies have shown that high-functioning children suffer from more anxiety disorders than do lower functioning children on the spectrum. Additionally, other research reports that adolescents and teens with ASD may be more challenged by anxiety than their younger peers.

How To Recognize Anxiety In Asperger’s and ASD

It can be difficult to spot the signs of anxiety in a child who has ASD for a couple of reasons: kids who are verbal may not be able to recognize and express their emotions, while children who are nonverbal can’t tell you that they are afraid or worried.

Also, children with ASD often display common behaviors that can look similar to those found in anxiety disorders. For example, the compulsions that are carried out in obsessive compulsive disorder can look much like the repetitive behaviors that a child with ASD will use, however the autistic child may not actually be anxious.

Although there are no specifics to watch for, anxiety often presents in the form of physical or behavioral issues. The signs may not be apparent in a younger child, but may show up in later years as they mature and their world expands to include school and other settings.

  • Social anxiety may show up in the form of avoidance of social situations. This keeps the child from experiencing interaction with peers and the opportunity to practice social skills.
  • Separation anxiety may be present if the child acts out when being parted from their parent, such as when a babysitter comes to the home or when the child goes off to school for the first time.
  • Phobias are anxiety responses to specific fears (i.e. fear of insects or acting out after being startled by a loud noise).
  • Distress about changes in routine can show up in the form of physical rituals or repetitive behaviors that the child uses to soothe themselves until they can calm down.
  • Controlling behavior or threats to hurt themselves or someone else are often a sign of high levels of emotional distress.
  • In adolescents and teens, alcohol and drug abuse are destructive coping methods that may be used to mask anxiety.

Treatment For Autism And Anxiety

Research has shown that behavioral interventions are helpful for many ASD children who have anxiety. One of the most effect therapies for treating autism and anxiety is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This therapy is best for a child who has some verbal abilities.

CBT teaches kids how to uncover the fear beneath their anxiety so they can challenge their negative or inaccurate thoughts. For instance, if a child has anxiety about going to school, they may actually be afraid of getting lost and not being able to find their parents again.

Once the fear has been identified, the therapist can use small doses of exposure therapy to provide the child with evidence that they are safe. In the case of school anxiety and the resulting fears surrounding being separated from a parent, exposure therapy might involve having the child spend a minute or two in a room without their parent. When mom or dad come back in, the child feels safe. As the length of time apart from their parent increases with an end result of the parents returning, the child’s anxiety level can begin to decrease when they are away from the parent in other situations.

Depending on the child, an anxiety medication, such as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) like Prozac, may also be used in combination with behavioral therapy.

Need More Information About ASD And Anxiety In Children?

Our warm and welcoming Children’s Center offers a wide range of clinical, therapeutic, educational and supportive services specifically for children ages two through twenty two.

For more information about how our child psychologist can help your child with their ASD and anxiety, contact the Children’s Center for Psychiatry Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

 

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Intensive Outpatient Therapy Helps Children With Depression And Anxiety

We all have our anxious moments or times when we are depressed. It’s normal to feel these emotions when we are in stressful situations. In children, anxiety and depression can manifest differently than it does in adults. We often see more dramatic signs of frustration, irritability, and even anger. Kids might be restless, withdraw socially, or lose their appetite.

Usually these conditions go away once conditions improve. For many children, however, anxiety or depression can drag on and on. It may get worse over time and might even start to interfere with their school life, social relationships, or daily activities. When it reaches this point, it is likely that the child has an anxiety or mood disorder that requires treatment from a child psychologist. Be assured that these conditions are highly treatable.

Traditionally, children who are undergoing treatment for anxiety or depression will see their therapist once or twice a week for 30-60 minute sessions. These sessions often continue for three to four months, but could go on much longer depending on the severity of the child’s disorder. However, a relatively new concept in psychotherapy, called intensive outpatient therapy, is showing promise for helping kids get better faster.

What Is Intensive Outpatient Therapy?

Intensive outpatient therapy is focused therapy that is given over longer treatment sessions. For example, intensive treatment might be concentrated into daily, three-hour sessions given five days in a row over a two to four week period.

Just as with a regular psychotherapy session, intensive treatment uses methods like cognitive behavior therapy CBT, mindfulness, and exposure response and prevention (ERP). The idea behind the intensive sessions is to teach strategies to decrease the child’s symptoms and provide support, but to do it within a framework that allows them to live at home and continue school and family activities.

An intensive outpatient therapy program includes:

  • Comprehensive treatment planning
  • Learning to recognize unhealthy behaviors
  • Building successful problem solving abilities
  • Learning coping strategies and skills
  • Methods and practice to aid in asking for and getting support
  • Follow up sessions to reinforce these new skills

Although intensive therapy is fairly new, research is showing that it is just as beneficial as long term therapy or in-patient centered therapy. A 2012 study of adults by Ritschel, Cheavens, and Nelson at the Emory University School of Medicine reported that, “Depression and anxiety scores decreased significantly and hope scores increased significantly over the course of treatment.“

Children who have anxiety and depression make similar advances when they undergo intensive outpatient therapy. These gains are long-lasting, just as they are for traditional treatment.

Intensive therapy involves parents as well as children. During treatment, family meetings are held so that parents can better understand the therapy process and learn how to best support their child.

Additionally, children may interact with other kids so they can see that others are going through similar challenges. This is also an opportunity for them to relate to children their own age in a way they may not be able to with their peers or siblings who don’t face the same concerns.

If you are looking for an intensive program for your child, be sure that whichever one you choose utilizes therapists who have been highly trained in treating anxiety and depression in children and teens.

Also, you want the program to be individualized to your child. They should feel a connection with the therapist. The therapist should work with your child to develop a plan specifically for their needs in order to maximize the outcome of their treatment.

Who Would Benefit From Intensive Outpatient Therapy?

Sometimes a child struggles with depression or anxiety symptoms while still being able to function in their daily life. At other times, they may need more focused therapy and support. Intensive outpatient treatment would work for both children. Intensive therapy can also provide rapid and effective management in someone with severe symptoms who has taken time away from school for their recovery.

To be most effective, children who participate in intensive therapy should:

  • Attend every session. This can be difficult if they are having bad days, but they will get the most benefit by coming to every appointment.
  • Allow themselves time to process what they are learning.
  • Treat themselves gently while they learn that it’s okay to make mistakes
  • Trust in the therapy and therapist.

Learning coping skills and effective management of symptoms may continue on and off during a child’s life. Sometimes kids need a “booster” even after intensive therapy, but trusting that the psychotherapists and treatment will help can aid in quickly reducing and managing moderate to severe anxiety and depression.

Learn More About Our Upcoming Intensive Outpatient Therapy Sessions For Children – Starting Soon!

For more information about our upcoming intensive outpatient therapy sessions for children and teens, talk to the professionals at the Children’s Center for Psychiatry, Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida. Contact us or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

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The Connection Between Diet And Mental Health

Food And Mental Health – Is There A Connection?

If your child is hungry, be wary of letting them reach for the chips or soda – junk foods could affect their mood. In fact, recent studies are showing that food and mental health are more closely linked than we realize.

Felice Jacka, president of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research reports that, “a very large body of evidence now exists that suggests diet is as important to mental health as it is to physical health. A healthy diet is protective and an unhealthy diet is a risk factor for depression and anxiety.”

Nutrition Psychiatry

In the U. S., mental health conditions are more common than you might think.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that around 50 percent of Americans will be diagnosed with a mental health condition some time during their lives. They report that, as of 2018, “mental illnesses, such as depression, are the third most common cause of hospitalization in the United States for those aged 18-44 years old.”

These alarming statistics, coupled with the fact that the Western diet is often filled with junk food, made scientists wonder if there was a connection between the two. Could it be that nutrition affects the brain as much as it does the body? To find out, researchers began to look into the relationship between food and mental health about a decade ago.

Drew Ramsey, MD, an assistant clinical professor at Columbia University reports that the last ten years of study has shown that, “the risk of depression increases about 80% when you compare teens with the lowest-quality diet, or what we call the Western diet, to those who eat a higher-quality, whole-foods diet.” He also points out that, “the risk of attention-deficit disorder (ADD) doubles.”

Because they are seeing that nutrition can play a role in mental health, researchers are now even thinking that food allergies might affect bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

Food and Mental Health

Most of the recent studies have revolved around the connection between a healthy diet and anxiety and depression. Although direct evidence linking food and mental health has not been found yet, there are trials in progress to prove it.

Meanwhile, we do know that a healthy diet affects brain health by:

  • Changing brain proteins and enzymes to increase neural transmitters, which are the connections between brain cells.
  • Boosting brain development.
  • Raising serotonin levels through various food enzymes, which improves mood.
  • Increasing good gut bacteria. This promotes a healthy gut biome, which decreases inflammation. Inflammation is known to affect both cognition and mood.

We now know that a nutrient-rich diet creates changes in brain proteins that improves the connections between brain cells. But diets that are high in refined sugars and saturated fats have been shown to have a “very potent negative impact on brain proteins,” Jacka says.

Moreover, we know that a high sugar, high fat diet decreases the healthy bacteria in the gut. Some studies have shown that a diet that is high in sugar may worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. And, a 2017 study of the sugar intake of 23,000 people by Knuppel, et al., “confirms an adverse effect of sugar intake from sweet food/beverage on long-term psychological health and suggests that lower intake of sugar may be associated with better psychological health.”

Foods For Brain Health

It’s logical that the foods that are best for the body should also be the foods that promote brain health. This theory is supported by the results from a large European study that shows that nutrient-dense foods like the ones found on the Mediterranean diet may actually help prevent depression.

The nutrients that may help brain health include:

  • Zinc – low levels of zinc can cause depression.
  • B12 – A 2013 report by Ramsey and Muskin that was published in Current Psychiatry, noted that “low B12 levels and elevated homocysteine increase the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease and are linked to a 5-fold increase in the rate of brain atrophy.”
  • Omega 3s – may improve mood and do help improve memory and thinking.
  • Vitamin C – The report by Ramsey and Muskin also noted that, “Vitamin C intake is significantly lower in older adults (age ≥60) with depression.”
  • Iron – iron-deficiency anemia plays a part in depression.

Eating nutrient-dense foods like whole grains, leafy greens, colorful vegetables, beans and legumes, seafood, and fruits will boost the body’s overall health – including brain health. Both the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet, which eliminates sugar, were found to significantly improve symptoms in the patients who took part in one study.

Adding fermented foods like sauerkraut, miso, kimchi, pickles, or kombucha, to your diet can improve gut health and increase serotonin levels. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate sleep and stabilize mood. About 95% of serotonin is produced in the gut, so it is understandable that eating these foods can make you feel more emotionally healthy.  The next time your child reaches for the chips and soda, ask yourself if those empty calories are benefiting their developing brains. Since they probably aren’t, hand them some cultured yogurt or an apple instead. Remember – every bite counts!

Note: Dietary changes shouldn’t substitute for treatment. If your child is on medications for a mental health disorder, don’t replace or reduce them with food on your own. Speak with their pediatrician or mental health professional about what they should eat, as well as what they shouldn’t. Medications will work better in a healthy body than an unhealthy one.

Questions? We Can Help

For more information about how your child’s diet could be affecting their mental health, talk to the professionals at the Children’s Center for Psychiatry, Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida. Contact us or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

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Suicide Contagion And The Parkland Tragedy

It’s just one month past the first anniversary of the massacre at Marjorie Stoneman Douglas High School and we have all been saddened to hear that two students who survived the attack recently took their lives within days of each other. Also, the father of a child who was killed in the 2012 Sandy Hook school shootings died this week in an apparent suicide. Now experts are concerned that these deaths may be the result of suicide contagion.

What Is Suicide Contagion?

There is strong evidence to suggest that suicides can occur in groups. When the media reports that someone famous has died by suicide, it seems that other, similar deaths quickly follow. It is almost as if suicide somehow becomes “contagious.”

We saw this happen last summer when Anthony Bourdain took his own life within days of Kate Spade’s death. Now we have this most recent suicide cluster involving the Parkland students and the Sandy Hook father. Were they due to suicide contagion?

Suicide contagion is also known as the Werther Effect – a phrase coined in the 1970s by suicide researcher, David Phillips. The name refers to a character called Werther from a 1774 novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In the book, Werther takes his life when he learns that the woman he loves has married another man.

After its release, Goethe’s novel was blamed for numerous copycat suicides across Europe. In this early example of suicide contagion, many of the victims died in a similar manner to the way the Werther character killed himself in the book. Some people used the same type of gun and some dressed in the style of clothing that Werther wore. Some were even found with a copy of the novel on or near their bodies.

The News Media’s Connection To Suicide Contagion

Phillips’ research into suicide clusters led him to conclude that copycat suicides rise when there is excessive news coverage of the suicide of famous figures. In addition to Phillips’ investigations, several other studies have found that suicide rates go up after media coverage of a notable death. These rates also fall when the media coverage stops.

“The way suicide is reported is a significant factor in media-related suicide contagion, with more dramatic headlines and more prominently placed (i.e., front page) stories associated with greater increases in subsequent suicide rates,” says Dr. Madelyn Gould, a suicide researcher from Columbia University.

As with Goethe’s book, suicide clusters also occur when fictional characters die by their own hand. Dr. Gould has reported that, “Research into the impact of media stories about suicide has demonstrated an increase in suicide rates after both nonfictional and fictional stories about suicide.”

There is an ongoing debate among experts about why suicide contagion follows these reports. Is it that the news coverage itself causes someone else to take their own life or do they do it because they are already in a vulnerable state?

Regardless of the reason, media guidelines for reporting a death by suicide have been in place in many parts of the world since the end of the twentieth century. Both the Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have issued policies for how news reports should cover notable and celebrity suicides.

Today, however, we have a new concern. In the twenty-first century, we rely less on standard media reporting and depend more on online sources to find out what is going on in the world. In particular, young people get their news from social media and the internet. These methods can spread a topic far more quickly than a news broadcast and – unfortunately – will do so with no filtering.

Suicide Risk Factors

In the case of the Parkland tragedy, we know that the first student to take her life was struggling with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). She also suffered with survivor’s guilt, as do many of the teens who were at the school that day.

Suicide is already the second leading cause of death for young people between the ages of 10 and 24 and this is without factoring in the trauma of a massacre like the one in Parkland. Clearly, we need to talk more openly with young people about suicide prevention.

We all can help avert this type of suicide by watching for youth suicide signs and risk factors and by asking direct questions.

A risk factor can’t predict if someone will take their own life, but having one or more of them makes it more likely the person will either consider or attempt suicide. These risk factors are:

  • Talking a lot about the suicide of someone important (or having recently lost someone close to them)
  • Making jokes about dying or about suicide
  • Losing interest in activities or relationships they used to enjoy
  • Sharing feelings of self-contempt or worthlessness, or talking about feeling hopeless and unsure if they will ever being happy again
  • Giving away possessions they used to care a lot about, such as favorite clothes or mementos
  • Isolating themselves
  • May exhibit extreme mood swings or have violent outbursts of grief or anger
  • Might have insomnia or may over-sleep or be lethargic
  • Indulging in risky behavior, especially if this is not characteristic of the person

Asking Questions That Can Help

The first step in preventing a suicide is the awareness that someone is considering ending their life. The next step is determining whether immediate intervention is needed.

If you think someone you know may be at risk, you can help them by using the Columbia Protocol suicide risk assessment. The Columbia Protocol was developed jointly by researchers from Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Pittsburgh, along with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). It was adopted by the CDC in 2011 and today it is used worldwide to assess at-risk individuals.

The Columbia Protocol is a series of three to six direct questions that you ask the person you are worried about. Their answers will provide enough information to know if they need help and if urgent action is necessary (click here to download the free Columbia Protocol toolkit now).

If your child or someone you know tells you they are considering suicide, don’t judge them. Instead, show empathy for their feelings and let them know you care about them. Next, get help from a mental health professional or a suicide crisis hotline. A crisis hotline is especially critical if the person is in immediate danger of attempting suicide.

Never leave someone alone if they are threatening suicide. If you believe they are in immediate danger, call 911 or the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (800-273-8255) in the United States. The line is open 24/7.

Talk To Us

If you are worried about your child or a loved one who may be at risk for suicide, talk to the specially trained mental health professionals at the Children’s Center for Psychiatry, Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida. Contact us or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

References

Forum on Global Violence Prevention; Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. Contagion of Violence: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2013 Feb 6. II.4, THE CONTAGION OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207262/

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Protecting Kids From The Momo Challenge

Protecting Kids From The Momo Challenge

Recently, the media has been reporting that 2018’s online Momo challenge has resurfaced. They talk about children encountering it in seemingly innocent YouTube videos. Originating on WhatsApp, the reemergence of the scary social media game has prompted schools and police stations to issue warnings about the challenge so that parents can discuss it with their kids.

What Is The Momo Challenge?

The Momo figure was actually a sculpture called “Mother Bird”. It was created by Japanese artist, Keisuke Aisawa. The sculpture featured a wraith-like figure with bulging eyes and long, stringy hair. To date, no evidence suggests that the artist or his special effects company had anything to do with the Momo challenge and the sculpture has since been destroyed.

Reports say that when the game first started, children were contacted to participate in the Momo challenge through their interaction with WhatsApp. More recently, however, the media is warning that the figure has apparently been popping up in Peppa Pig or Fortnight YouTube videos.

When a child participates in the game, they are actually interacting with someone who tells them to perform certain tasks to avoid being “cursed.” Reportedly, these assignments often require the child to do something harmful to themselves or others. They might be told to take pills or stab or otherwise hurt someone. The tasks even go as far as telling the child to take their own life.

The Momo figure asks the child to prove they have completed a task by providing a photograph of themselves while engaged in the assignment. To advance through the game, the child must show this proof. At the end of the game, the child’s final assignment is to commit suicide while recording it for social media.

Is The Momo Challenge A Hoax Or A Real Thing?

When the Momo game initially came out on social media, critics were quick to dismiss it as a hoax. While there have been a few child suicides that were thought to have been a result of the challenge, there has never been any definitive proof linking them to the game.

Additionally, it is difficult to find online images of kids participating in the game. Doubters think that if the challenge was real, there would be many more social media pictures of Momo collaborations.

ReignBot, a YouTuber who is famous for videos that explore creepy things on the Internet says, “Finding screenshots of interactions with Momo is nearly impossible and you’d think there’d be more for such a supposedly widespread thing.”

Often, the warnings about dangerous online challenges spread farther and faster than the actual game. That said, it is potentially dangerous for a child who is vulnerable to self-esteem and other psychological issues to be exposed to something that could be harmful.

Talking To Your Kids About Momo

Regardless of whether the game is real, experts agree that parents need to address the topic with their children preemptively. Dr. Ryan Seidman, a child and adolescent psychologist and the Clinical Director at our Children’s Center, says parents should warn their kids about these online challenges.

“Discuss with younger children what to do if they see the face,” she advises. You might start by asking the child if they have heard of Momo, then tell them to get a parent or other adult if something scary or threatening ever pops up on an app or video.

For teens and adolescents who want more independence, it’s good to have periodic discussions about online encounters, as well as anything in their lives that is frightening or threatening to them.

Encourage your kids to tell you if they are being bullied (by the way, Momo is a form of cyber-bullying). Be sure they understand that you are trusting them to let you know.

Self Harm And Suicide – Who Is At Risk From The Momo Challenge?

It’s unlikely that an online challenge would affect a psychologically healthy child, but it could push kids who self harm or who are contemplating suicide to act on their thoughts.

Self Harm

Self harm isn’t restricted to a certain age group or race, or to someone with a certain socioeconomic or educational background. Anyone may engage in self harm, but the behavior happens most often in teens and young adults.

Self harm happens most frequently in:

  • People who have difficulty expressing their emotions
  • Those individuals who have a background of childhood trauma, such as physical, verbal, or sexual abuse
  • People who don’t have a strong social support network. Conversely, we know it happens more often in those who have friends who also self harm
  • Those who also have post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, or in those who engage in substance abuse

Suicide

Keep in mind that suicide is the result of a mental illness. People who are vulnerable to online cyber-bullying and content like the Momo challenge are often already suffering from mental health issues, such as low self esteem, anxiety, or depression.

As mentioned above, the Momo game is thought to have led to several teen suicides last year, although the link hasn’t been proven.

Suicide is the second leading cause of teen deaths, but could a dangerous challenge increase risky behavior in an susceptible teen?

Madelyn S. Gould, Ph.D., a psychiatrist at Columbia University, thinks so. She says, “The magnitude of the increase [in the number of suicides] is proportional to the amount, duration, and prominence of media coverage. We know from a number of studies that the celebrity status of a suicide victim increases the impact of the suicide.”

Add to that the feeling of being alone in their pain and it’s possible a challenge could push a distressed teen over the edge.

Adolescents and teens who are considering suicide usually give unmistakable warning signs:

  • Making jokes about dying or about suicide
  • Sharing feelings of self-contempt or worthlessness, or talk about feeling hopeless and unsure they will ever being happy again
  • Giving away possessions they used to care a lot about, such as favorite clothes or  mementos
  • Losing interest in activities or relationships they used to enjoy
  • Talking a lot about the suicide of someone important (or may have recently lost someone close to them)
  • Isolating themselves
  • Might have insomnia or may over-sleep, may be lethargic
  • May exhibit extreme mood swings or have violent outbursts of grief or anger
  • An increase in drug or alcohol use
  • Indulging in risky behavior, especially if this is not characteristic of the person

Your child needs to know you are taking them seriously and that you care about them. If you are concerned that they are exhibiting some of these signs, ask the child directly if they are considering suicide (or have someone else they trust ask them). Be assured that it is okay to use the word “suicide” – saying the word will not raise the chance that they will act on the idea.

If your child admits that they are considering suicide, be empathetic about their feelings – don’t judge them. Seek help from a mental health professional such as those at our Children’s Center, from your child’s pediatrician, or from a suicide crisis hotline. The crisis hotline is especially critical if you think your child is in imminent danger of attempting suicide.

Worried about the Momo challenge’s influence on your child? Talk with a Child Psychologist at our Children’s Center

For more information about our children’s mental health services,  contact the Children’s Center for Psychiatry Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

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School Violence and PTSD

School Violence and PTSD

This week marks the first anniversary of the school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, FL. On February 14, 2018, 17 students and teachers were senselessly killed and 14 more were wounded.

Reflecting on the tragedy and remembering those who lost their lives will no doubt bring up strong emotions in some children. Even those who weren’t personally connected to the event may feel sad and re-experience a sense of loss. For some kids, the anniversary may even trigger or worsen symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Distressing events such as school shootings can affect children just like they can affect adults. In fact, it’s normal for kids to go through a range of emotions when they hear about a tragedy – they might have trouble sleeping or may express fear, sadness, anger, and grief.

PTSD After Trauma

While many people have moved past the distress brought on by the Parkland shootings, some students may have developed post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) afterward. This is because children who saw the news coverage or heard about the event may have felt scared, threatened, and unsafe in their own school. Now, the anniversary may bring these troubling thoughts to the surface again.

PTSD is often the result after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal, especially one in which intense physical harm has occurred or was threatened. It isn’t uncommon for people who were not personally present during a tragedy to find themselves going through some of the symptoms of PTSD, as well.

Just think of your reaction to the events on September 11, 2001. We all watched countless news images of the planes impacting the Twin Towers and of their eventual collapse. Many Americans had strong emotional responses during the tragedy – it seemed as if that’s all we talked about for weeks afterward.

In simple terms, we felt threatened. In this way, you can see how varying degrees of PTSD were the result for many people. Kids can feel the same symptoms after something that hits close to home for them, such as a school tragedy.

PTSD Symptoms

The symptoms of PTSD fall into three categories:

  • Hyperarousal symptoms
  • Avoidance symptoms
  • Re-experience symptoms

With hyperarousal, the person may have problems sleeping or anger easily. They may also be easily startled or seem to be constantly tense and on alert.

Those kids who experience avoidance symptoms might have strong feelings of guilt or worry. Some may be depressed or emotionally numb or may lose interest in the things they used to enjoy. Others might avoid anything that reminds them of the ordeal.

Kids whose PTSD falls into the group that re-experiences the trauma may be burdened with nightmares or frightening, overwhelming thoughts.

Younger children may reenact the event or draw it out on paper. They may also regress or show fearful behavior.

How Is PTSD Treated Professionally?

With time and a period of adjustment, most people will recover from a traumatic event. If a child has gone through a trauma, however, and still has PTSD symptoms for more than a month, seek help from an expert.

A therapist can work with your child to address their symptoms and depression. They will move at the child’s own pace while helping your teen or child adjust.

The therapist may use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which is very effective for dealing with the negative feelings and thoughts that come with PTSD. CBT helps the child replace the destructive emotions with positive ones.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is another therapy that has a proven track record in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. It uses focused eye movements to treat PTSD and works in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy.

For young children, engaging in play therapy can be a great way to help them deal with a trauma.

Medication is sometimes prescribed to help a child cope after a tragic event. This is usually reserved for serious symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Helping Your Child At Home

A child who has been through a trauma needs an adjustment period to help them process the event. During this time, they will need plenty of love, support, patience and understanding from you.

  • Let them talk about what happened, but don’t force them to do so – they need to be ready to talk. If they won’t talk, encourage them to draw or write about their feelings.
  • Let the child know their emotions and thoughts are normal. Get immediate professional help if they are thinking about self-harming or are talking about suicide.
  • Keep their routine as close to normal as possible. Try not to let them take too much time off from school or away from activities like sports or music classes, etc.
  • Support groups can be very helpful for expressing emotions after a trauma. Ask the school counselor or your child’s pediatrician for nearby groups.
  • Don’t condemn behaviors like sleeping with a stuffed animal or keeping the lights on when they go to bed. Sometimes these things can give the child an added measure of comfort during a distressing period in their lives.

 After School Violence – We Can Help

Our Children’s Center staff has specially trained clinicians to help those who need help dealing with the anniversary of the school shooting or other traumatic situations. For more information, contact The Children’s Center for Psychiatry Psychology and Related Services in Delray Beach, Florida or call us today at (561) 223-6568.

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